VitalRay offers full laboratory services that include clinical chemistry, hematology, serology, coagulation, immunology, cancer/tumor tumor marker, molecular diagnostic parameters, histology, cytology, hormonal assay and drug monitoring. Our Pathologists and Technologists are highly skilled and possess extensive clinical experience. We are dedicated to offering accurate, reproducible and timely results.

What to expect during Lab Tests

Laboratory tests can be performed on many different types of samples (specimens). The most common samples are blood, urine, saliva, sputum, stool, tissue, aspirates, semen and other bodily fluids. The two most common methods of collecting samples are through drawing blood from a vein in your arm or a patient producing samples like saliva, urine, sputum, stool, etc. for analysis.

For certain tests, you will be asked to avoid eating or drinking for a period of time. You may also be asked to avoid taking certain medication or certain types of food prior to the test as they may affect your test results.

At VitalRay, most of the common tests can be collected without an appointment. After collection of your samples at the Laboratory, the Pathologist or the Technologist will advise you on the appropriate time of collection of your results.

Clinical Chemistry

Clinical Chemistry is a biochemical analysis of body fluids that uses chemical reactions to determine the levels of various chemical compounds in bodily fluids. The most commonly tested specimens in Clinical Chemistry are serum, blood, stool, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and urine.


Hematology involves the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients who have disorders of the blood and bone marrow management of a wide range of benign and malignant disorders of blood components such as the red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets in adults and children.


This test is performed to detect and measure the levels of antibodies after exposure to a particular microorganism. Exposure to microorganism (antigens) causes the body’s immune system to produce specific antibodies against the specific microorganism (antigen). The antibody levels (antibody titre) aids in the determination of whether an infection is currently occurring, or if it was a recent infection.


This is the study of the immune system. It involves the study of the properties, function, interaction and production of the chemical components i.e. the antibodies/immunoglobulins, epitopes of proteins and antigens of the immune system, the immune response and determination of immune materials by immunological assay.
Immunology is also used to predict responses to therapy, identify infections, as well as muscular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Cancer/Tumor Markers

These are proteins produced by the cancer tissue or sometimes by the body in response to cancer growth. Tumor markers may be used along with other tests and procedures to;
• Help detect and diagnose some types of cancer,
• Predict and monitor a person’s response to certain treatments,
• Staging of cancer
• Detect recurrence.


The study of processed cells, tissues and organs (biopsy) under a microscope by a pathologist for the diagnosis of disease and determination of correlation between the structure and function of cells, tissues and body organs.


Cytology evaluates fluid specimens of a single cell type from various body sites for the detection of and screening of cancer, precancerous changes and other benign conditions, screening of cell abnormalities and diagnosis of infectious organisms.
The collection of these specimens is done through:
• Scraping or brushing the tissue surface, such as during a pap smear.
• Collecting body fluids, such for urine or respiratory phlegm.
• Fine-needle aspirations. This is removing cells by drawing them through a fine needle, such as abdominal fluid in ascites, pleural fluid from the lungs, or cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal canal.


These are studies used to diagnose bleeding and clotting disorders. Coagulation studies are also used to monitor the prognosis during therapy for bleeding and clotting disorders.

Molecular Diagnostic Parameters

These tests use genetic information to assist in the diagnosis, detection, classification and prognosis of infectious disease, congenital abnormalities and different types of cancer.

Hormonal Assay

Hormonal assay tests give an indication of metabolic processes and conditions. Many hormones are measured (assayed) in the blood, including the male and female fertility hormones (oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone) and hormones secreted by other glands such as the thyroid and adrenal gland. Physicians use the results in these assays to diagnose, treat or monitor the response to medication.

Drug Monitoring

Drug monitoring includes both therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and substance abuse monitoring (SAM). The levels of these drugs are measured in blood and/or in urine. TDM is aimed at improving patient care by individually adjusting the dose of drugs for which clinical trials have shown that it improved outcome in the general or special populations. Substance abuse monitoring (SAM) is used to track the progress of treatment of an addict or to check if a person has abused a drug or not.